Several new BONUS BALTCOAST publications available
Within the past weeks several publications of the BONUS BALTCOAST project have been released and are now available on the project's website: www.baltcoast.net/publications.html
Expert Based Ecosystem Service Assessment in Coastal and Marine Planning and Management: A Baltic Lagoon Case Study
By Schernewski G., Inácio M., Nazemtseva Y.
The assessment of ecosystem services, the benefits humans obtain from ecosystems, is a worldwide topic of growing interest, but examples addressing coastal and marine waters are still a small minority. In this study, we carry out an expert based ecosystem service assessment for a concrete case study, the Szczecin (Oder) Lagoon located at the German/Polish border in the Baltic Sea region. We analyze to what extent, in which step and how it can be applied for supporting Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), the ecological-social-economic assessment within System Approach Frameworks (SAF), and Marine Spatial Planning (MSP). The large, shallow Szczecin Lagoon is heavily eutrophied. Therefore, several alternative measures (scenarios) are under discussion to improve its water quality and its ecological status. Scenarios include a large-scale mussel farm; the establishment of a local mussel farm that removes nutrients via harvest and increases water transparency; artificial mussel beds; groins to reduce coastal current velocities, favor sediment accumulation, and promote the enlargement of macrophyte beds and other measures to enlarge macrophyte belts and coverage. We adapt and apply a computer aided ecosystem service assessment and visualization tool (ESAT). Eight experts and two student groups apply this tool and carry out an assessment of each scenario compared to the present state of the lagoon. The results show that the scenario assuming measures to enlarge macrophyte belts is perceived as the one that generates the highest additional ecosystem service output. However, more importantly our approach can serve as tool to catch the views of experts, can extract disagreements between experts and misunderstandings in the setup of scenarios as well as services that have highest priority for further consideration. Further, the results are useful for preparing stakeholder discussions and workshops. However, the expert assessments are influenced by the spatial scale of the assessed scenarios. As consequence, the assessment results itself cannot be regarded as a reliable basis for decision making. Today, Integrated Coastal Zone Management ideas and approaches are well reflected and integrated into Marine Spatial Planning and we show that a comparative ecosystem service assessment can be applied in different steps of each concept.
Szczecin Lagoon, systems approach framework, integrated coastal zone management, public participation, stakeholder, marine spatial planning directive, mussel farming, macrophyte
New beach in a shallow estuarine lagoon: a model-based E. coli pollution risk assessment
By Umgiesser G., Čerkasova N., Erturk A., Mėžinė J., Kataržytė M.
A 3D hydrodynamic model has been applied to the Curonian Lagoon to study the pollution impact of E. coli on a new beach that might be opened in the lagoon. Through a field survey the E. coli inputs were measured and then used in the numerical model, and through laboratory experiments the decay rate of E. coli was established. The model has been calibrated and validated for the year 2015, and several scenarios have been studied, such as sewage system breakdown, severe weather conditions or high river loads. The model has then been run for a period of 12 years to obtain a robust statistics for the pollution on the planned beach. Results show that the decay rate of E. coli is between 0.55 days and 2.3 days and the modeled decay times are compatible with these numbers. The only scenario that would create a risk for the bathing waters of the beach is a breakdown of the sewage system on the Curonian Spit. In this case the hours (and days) over legally allowable bathing threshold were computed in order to estimate the number of days the beach could be closed. These results have been confirmed by the 12 year simulations. With an influence map analysis the two most critical sewage systems could be identified.
Curonian Lagoon, Finite elements, Numerical modeling, E. coli, Beach opening, Microbiological pollution
GIS-based multi-criteria site selection for zebra mussel cultivation: Addressing end-of-pipe remediation of a eutrophic coastal lagoon ecosystem
By Bagdanavičiūtė I., Umgiesser G., Vaičiūtė D., Bresciani M., Kozlov I., Zaiko A.
Farming of shellfish and seaweeds is a tested tool for mitigating eutrophication consequences in coastal environments, however as many other marine economic activities it should be a subject of marine spatial planning for designating suitable sites. The present study proposes site selection framework for provisional zebra mussel farming in a eutrophic lagoon ecosystem, aimed primarily at remediation purposes. GIS-based multi-criteria approach was applied, combining data from empirical maps, numerical models and remote sensing to estimate suitability parameters. Site selection and prioritisation of suitable areas considered 15 environmental and socio-economic criteria, which contributed to 4 optimisation models (settlement, growth and survival of mussels, environmental and socio-economic) and 3 predefined scenarios representing provisional goals of mussel cultivation: spat production, biomass production and bioremediation. The relative importance of each criterion was assessed utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Site suitability index was calculated and the final result of the site selection analysis was summarized for 3 scenarios and overall suitability map. Four suitability classes (unsuitable, least, moderately and most suitable) were applied, and 3 most suitable zones for provisional zebra mussel cultivation with 12 candidate sites were selected accordingly. The integrated approach presented in this study can be adjusted for designating zebra mussel farming sites in other estuarine lagoon ecosystems, or cultivation of other mussel species for bioremediation purposes. The analytical framework and the workflow designed in this study are also adoptable for addressing other aquaculture-related spatial planning issues.
Dreissena polymorpha, Aquaculture, Site suitability analysis, AHP, Baltic Sea, Curonian lagoon